Date of Award


Degree Type

Restricted Access Thesis

Degree Name

Master of Science

Field of Study

Clinical Research and Education: Osteopathic Manipulative Medicine


Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Michael L. Smith


These studies tested 1) the hypothesis that muscle tension and pain produced at subthreshold intensities for provoking a pressor effect will produce a pressor effect when combined (synergism); and 2) that cold-induced pain applied to the forearm produces a similar pain and pressor effect as cold ice-bath immersion of the hand. Arterial pressure (AP) and perceived pain measurements were obtained in 17 volunteers during 10% static handgrip, 6ºC cold applied to the forearm and the combination of both stimuli. Neither stimulus produced a pressor effect alone (0.08